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MessaggioInviato: Mer Mar 05, 2008 9:08 pm    Oggetto: Perchè la Surah "at-Tawba" non inizia con Basmala? Rispondi citando

Surah Taubah: Why no Bismillah?
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The following answer was given by Faqihul Ummah Hadhrat Mufti Mahmood Gangohi (rahmatullah alayhi) to the question why Surah Taubah has no Bismillah at the beginning.

When Hadrat Uthman رضى الله عنه was asked why there was no bismillah at the beginning of Surah al-Tawba like how there is bismillah at the beginning of other surahs, he replied that there was some doubt as to this surah being a separate surah, because Nabi صلى الله عليه و سلم passed away without explicitly mentioning anything regarding it. This is why Bismillah was not written at the beginning of Surah Taubah. However, since its subject-matter is similar to that of Surah Anfal, it was placed after it and a space for Bismillah has been kept because it is possible that this is a separate surah. (Tirmizi, Vol 2, Pg.139)

In Bukhari Shareef (Vol 2,Pg 271) it is mentioned that this surah was revealed to cancel the peace treaty. In it appears the command of killing the mushrikeen (polytheists) and the expression of Allah Ta`ala’s anger over them. Therefore, Bismillah was not written at the beginning of the surah since Bismillah signifies peace and mercy.

It appears in Shaatbi: لتنزيلها بالسيف لست مبسملا (Bismillah does not appear at the beginning of this surah, because it was revealed in connection to war.) This is not the actual reason though it is a point to consider. The actual reason is that which is narrated from Hadrat Uthman رضى الله عنه (Bayanul Qur’an, Vol 4, Pg 95)

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MessaggioInviato: Mar Apr 14, 2009 8:07 pm    Oggetto: perchè?? Rispondi citando

assalamu 3alaikum

perchè quindi?

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MessaggioInviato: Mar Apr 14, 2009 10:09 pm    Oggetto: Rispondi citando

Wa `alaykum asSalam wa RahmatuLlahi wa BarakatuHu!

Hadrat Mufti Mahmood Gangohi (ra) dice che un punto da considerare per l'assenza della basmalah iniziale è il fatto che questa surah sia stata rivelata per cancellare il precedente trattato di pace con i politeisti, ed in essa Dio esprime la sua ira contro di loro (per cui non è stata scritta la basmala, che esprime invece la pace e la misericordia di Allah), ma la ragione è che quella fornita da Hadrat `Uthman (Allah sia soddisfatto di lui), ovvero il fatto che vi erano dubbi se questa surah fosse separata o meno da Surah Anfal.

Come aggiunge Mufti Shafi' Usmani nel suo tafsir, "Ma`arif-ul-Qu'ran":

"Now begins Surah Al-Bara'ah which is also called Surah Al-Taubah (as written; also Surah At-Taubah as pronounced). It is called Bara'ah for the reason that it mentions bara'ah or disengagement with the consequences of what the kuffar (disbelievers) do. Then, it is also called Taubah because it announces that the repentance of Muslims has been accepted. (Mazhari). It is a feature of this Surah that 'bismillah' () : Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim: With the name of Allah, the [All-] Merciful, the Very Merciful) is not written in the copies of the Qur'an when the Surah begins. However, Bismillah is written at the head of all Surahs of the Qur'an - the sole exception being that of Surah Al-Taubah. Before we find out the relevant reason, let us bear in mind that the Holy Qur'an was revealed bit by bit during the period of twenty three years. The verses of a Surah were revealed at different times. When Sayyidna Jibra'il would come with a revelation, he would also point out to the Divinely intended arrangement of each revealed verse, explaining that it should be placed in such and such Surah after such and such 'Ayah (verse). It was in accordance with this Divinely intended arrangement that the Holy Prophet (SallaLlahu `alayhi wa Sallam) would have scribes of the revelation write them up.

And when, at the end of a Surah, the next was to begin, 'Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim' would be revealed before the next actually did - which made it easy to understand that the previous Surah had concluded and another Surah was beginning. All Surahs of the Holy Qur'an were revealed in that manner. Surah Al-Taubah is, in terms of the order of revelation, among one of the very last Surahs. When it began, neither was Bismillah revealed as customary, nor did the Holy Prophet (SallaLlahu `alayhi wa Sallam) instruct the scribe of the revelation to do that. So, this was how things stood when the Holy Prophet (SallaLlahu `alayhi wa Sallam) passed away.

When Sayyidna 'Uthman al-Ghani (RadiAllahu `anhu) arranged the Holy Qur'an in the form of a book during the period of his Caliphate, Bismillah was not there at the beginning of Surah Al-Taubah, an arrangement contrary to that of the rest of Surahs. Therefore, a doubt rose - perhaps, this is not an independent Surah, or may as well be a part of some other Surah. Now, they thought, if this happens to be a part of some other Surah, which Surah is that? In terms of its subjects, Surah Al-Anfal seemed to fit the slot.

Also, as narrated by Sayyidna 'Uthman (RadiyAllahu `anhu) elsewhere, 'during the blessed period of the Holy Prophet (SallaLlahu `alayhi wa Sallam), both these Surahs were called: (qarinatayn: the two connected ones)'. (Mazhari). Therefore, it was placed after Surah Al-Anfal. This precaution was taken for the reason that, should it be a part of another Surah, it must stay with it. But, it was also probable that it may be a separate and independent Surah. Therefore, when writing, a particular format was adopted whereby some space was left open at the end of Surah Al-Anfal and before the beginning of Surah Al-Taubah - similar to the spot meant for writing Bismillah at the head of other Surahs.

The precise reason why Bismillah was not written at the beginning of Surah Al-Bara'ah or Al-Taubah has been reported from the great compiler of the revealed text of the Qur'an, Saiyyidna 'Uthman (radiyAllahu `anhu) himself. At that time, he was answering a question posed by Sayyidna 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, the Sahabi and Mufassir (exegete) of the Qur'an, which appears in Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, the Musnad of Ahmad and Tirmidhi. In that question, Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas had also asked Sayyidna 'Uthman about the order in which the Surahs of the Qur'an have been arranged. Giving an example, he pointed out that placed first were the larger Surahs that have more than hundred verses. Technically, they are called (mi'in: hundreds). After that, there are the large Surahs that have less than hundred verses. They are called (mathani: the oft-repeated ones). Placed thereafter were smaller Surahs that are called (mufassalat: the Surahs starting from "Qaf [50] to the end of the Qur'an [114]). The order of this very arrangement necessitated that Surah Al-Taubah should be placed before Surah Al-Anfal - because the verses carried by Surah Al-Taubah are more than one hundred while those of Surah Al-Anfal are less than one hundred. The first seven long Surahs called (sab' tiwal: the seven long ones) also show that the placement of Surah Al-Taubah before Surah Al-Anfal is naturally more appropriate there too. After having stated the existing position, Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas (RadiyAllahu `anhu) asked about the consideration that had led to a contrary arrangement. Sayyidna 'Uthman (radiyAllahu `anhu) said: 'Correct. But, the Qur'an was serious matter. Precaution demanded that we do what we did - because, in case Surah Al-Taubah is not taken as an independent Surah, instead, is taken as a part of Surah Al-Anfal, it will be obvious that the verses of Surah Al-Anfal have been revealed earlier and those of Surah Al-Taubah after that. Given this situation, it is not permissible to give precedence to the verses of the latter over the verses of Surah Al-Anfal without the sanction of Wahy (revelation). And since we did not find any such instruction in the Wahy, therefore, Surah Al-Anfal was made to precede and Surah Al-Taubah, to succeed.'

From these precise details we learn that the reason for not writing Bismillah at the beginning of Surah Al-Taubah lies in the probability that Surah Al-Taubah may not be an independent Surah, instead, be a part of Surah Al-Anfal. Given this probability, writing Bismillah at this place shall be as incorrect as someone were to write Bismillah in the middle of any Surah of the Qur'an.

On this basis, Muslim jurists have said that a person who has already been reciting Surah Al-Anfal from above and is going to begin Surah Al-Taubah, then, he or she should not recite Bismillah. But, a person who is starting his or her tilawah (recitation of the Qur'an) from the beginning, or from somewhere in the middle, of this very Surah should say: (Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim) and then begin his or her recitation. Some people who do not know rules think that the recitation of Bismillah while reciting Surah Al-Taubah is not permissible under any condition. This is a mistaken notion. Then, they would make another mistake on top of that. Instead of reciting Bismillah, they would recite: "'A`udhu bi-Llahi min an-nar" (I seek the protection of Allah from the Fire) when initiating or beginning from it. For this, there is no proof from the Holy Prophet (SallaLlahu `alayhi wa Sallam) and his Companions (radiyAllahu `anhum).

Then, there is the statement of Sayyidna 'Ali (RadiyAllahu `anhu) reported in a narrative from Sayyidna Ibn 'Abbas (RadiyAllahu `anhu). It says, 'the reason for not writing Bismillah at the beginning of Surah Bara'ah (Al-Taubah) is that (Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim) is an assurance of protection, but in Surah Al-Bara'ah, this assurance of protection and the pledge of peace given to disbelievers has been terminated.' This statement should be taken as a refinement of approach that does not go against the real cause. And the real cause is nothing but that Bismillah was not written on the basis of the probability that Surah Al-Anfal and Surah Al-Taubah may be one. Then, there could be yet another subtle point about why it was not written. This Surah proclaims freedom from any responsibility for the disbelievers and announces the withdrawal of peace and protection from those people - which is not fit for Bismillah. Therefore, in terms of the design of creation, particular causes were generated here so that Bismillah was not to be written at this place.
"
[Ma`arif-ul-Qu'ran, Mufti Shafi Usmani, da:
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E Dio è il più sapiente.

'umar andrea

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