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Imam Ibn `Abidin

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Imam Ibn `Abidin (RA)
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This biography of Imām Ibn ābidīn Shāmī based on the preface of Radd al-Muĥtār, the Dār Iĥyā at-Turāth edition. Original Arabic by Shaykh bd al-Jalīl ţā of Damascus.

Sayyid Muĥammad Amīn ibn Sayyid mar ibn Sayyid bd al-zīz ibn Sayyid Aĥmed ibn Sayyid bd ar-Raĥīm ibn Sayyid Najmuddīn ibn Sayyid Muĥammad Şalāĥuddīn widely known as Ibn ābidīn is praised in these words: the prominent, praiseworthy and noble scholar; an ocean of knowledge; the master scholar [jahbadh]; the great jurist [faqīh]; the genius; the finest among the later scholars and the last of the research scholars; one with an exalted ancestry [hasīb,nasīb]; the erudite Imām; the litterateur.

The Imām was born - Raĥimahullāh - in Damascus (Syria), in an family of scholars and high ancestry in the year 1198 AH. His lineage reaches Sayyid Sharīf Zayn al-ābidīn and from him to Sayyidah Fāţimah, the daughter of the Master of all creation, şallAllāhu layhi wa sallam. Ibn ābidīns father Sayyid mar and his mother were both famed for their righteousness and taqwā [being fearful of Allāh]. May Allāh have mercy on them.

He grew up in his fathers care in the Qanawāt area in Damascus. He memorized the Qurān at a very young age and was a frequent visitor at his fathers shop where he learnt the skills of the trade [to enable him earn an honest livelihood]. Sometimes, he would recite the Qurān in the shop. On one such occasion, a passerby objected to his recitation in a public place, since people neither listen to the Qurān nor pay heed to what is being recited. He also pointed out a few minor mistakes in his recitation. Immediately, he set out seeking good reciters to correct his mistakes.

He was referred to the master reciter of his time, [shaykh al-qurrāa, llāmah] Muĥammad Saīd ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ĥamawī (d.1236 AH). He perfected his tajwīd under him and memorized Shāţibiyyah, Maydāniyyah and Jazariyyah. He also learnt Shafiī fiqh from him and memorized Az-Zabd. He learnt Arabic grammar and morphology [naĥw, şarf] before finally completing his studies and obtaining a general degree of authorization from him [ijāzatun āmmah].

Allāh tālā had destined him to meet the greatest scholar of his age, Shaykh Shākir al-qqād, famously known as Ibn al-Miqdam Sad. Under him, he read books of Qurānic exegesis, juristic principles, inheritance, taşawwuf, mathematics [tafsīr, ĥadīth, uşūl, farāyiđ, taşawwuf, ĥisāb] and the rational sciences.

qqād was instrumental in changing his madhhab to that of Imām al-Aam [Ibn ābidīn was a Shāfiī earlier]. He read major books of Ĥanafī fiqh under him like Multaqā al-Abĥur, Kanz ad-Daqāyiq, its exegesis Baĥr ar-Rāyiq, Dirāyah and Hidāyah.

He began reading Durr al-Mukhtār under well-known scholars, the most famous among whom was Shaykh Saīd al-Ĥalabī. Ibn ābidīns meeting with Shaykh Shākir was a giant stride in his career as a scholar and a pilgrim upon the spiritual path. No wonder then, he remained in his company for seven years, after which Shaykh Shākir would present him to his own teachers and recommend them to grant him authorizations. His chain of transmissions [sanad] became more elevated and shorter than earlier ones. He also became a member [murīd] of the Qādirī order to which he kept forever. [Ţarīqah of Ghawth al-Aam Shaykh bd al-Qādir Jīlānī Rađiyallāhu nhū]

After the death of Shaykh Shākir Raĥimahullāh, he continued studying under his deputy, Shaykh Saīd al-Ĥalabī. Al-Ĥalabī was the most learned man in Shaykh Shākirs circle and was also the foremost Ĥanafī scholar of his time. He loved Ibn ābidīn so much that he did not start his lessons until Ibn ābidīn was present. The lessons of Durr al-Mukhtār were held next to the Umawī mosque after morning prayers.

Ibn ābidīn was very handsome and charismatic; he was tall and had a good physique. He was mild mannered, kind and always cheerful; yet, he was always dignified and poised. He had a certain awe about him which commanded respect. His speech was full of wisdom and foresight.

An Indian shaykh once said to his teacher Al qqād, when he left Ibn ābidīn behind waiting at the door: Bring along the young man, for I see the light of Prophethood shine between his eyes.

He received degrees of authorization from major scholars of his time, from his shaykhs, and their shaykhs. This was on account of his shaykh qqād, who introduced him to his own shaykhs and grand-shaykhs when he noticed the extraordinary intelligence, sincerety and talent of the young man. Given below are the degrees of the authorization he obtained:

A general degree of authorization from the famous shaykh, Muĥammad al-Kazbūrī al-Kabīr, the muĥaddith of his time who passed away in 1221 AH. He signed the certificate of authorization in the year, 1210 AH when Ibn ābidīn was only a little over twelve years old.

Another general degree from the great scholar and famous muĥaddith shaykh, Aĥmed al-ţţār who passed away in 1218 AH. He granted him this ijāzah in 1216 when he was about eighteen years old.

Another general degree of authorization from the great scholar, Al-Amīr al-Kabīr (d.1232 AH), which he had it sent to him in 1228 AH.

An ijāzah to narrate from the reciters of Damascus, through his first teacher Muĥammad Saīd al-Ĥamawī (d.1236 AH) which includes many prominent scholars of that time.

And the degree from his own shaykh, Muĥammad Shākir al-qqād, famously known as Ibn Miqdam Sad.
Ibn ābidīn began writing when he was barely seventeen. Among his earliest writings were annotations on books that he read from his shaykh, qqād, especially on Baĥr ar-Rāyiq and Durr al-Mukhtār.

He worked very hard and kept a steady progress until eventually, he become the foremost authority on Ĥanafī fiqh in his time. In the times of Shaykh Ĥusayn al-Murādi, he was made the chief muftī of Damascus. He received questions through mail from all over the world on various matters to which he replied, sometimes in a very detailed manner.

The Ĥāshiyah or the Marginalia on Durr al-Mukhtār, is his magnum opus in which he compiled the preferred rulings [of Ĥanafī fiqh], thereby making it an authority in the Ĥanafī madhhab. Durr al-Mukhtār is a concise work; thus, many matters have been omitted to keep it concise. Sometimes, descriptions are cryptic for anyone but a trained eye and an experienced master. Ibn ābidīn saw the need for its exegesis, and inclusion of many matters omitted therein.

Incidentally, earlier authors who attempted such a comprehensive work, passed away before they could complete their work. Usually these books did not progress beyond the section on ijārah [hiring, renting] like Fatĥ al-Qadīr [Kamāl ibn Humām] for example. Therefore, Ibn ābidīn started his marginalia from the part on ijārah saying If death takes me sooner, this should serve as the completion of the unfinished earlier ones. But if I live long enough, I shall return to make it a whole, complete work

He began writing the Marginalia under the auspices of his shaykh, Saīd al-Ĥalabī after he finished reading Durr al-Mukhtār the first time and from the notes he had made for the same. Thereafter, he read it once more with the annotations of Ibrāhīm al-Ĥalabī. In the meantime he would show his drafts to the shaykh who would be pleased and say: The time has come for this huge collection to be finally ordered and the giant task to be completed.

As mentioned earlier, he started from the part on ijārah and went on till the end. He then started it from the beginning and finished at ijārah. Once it was completed, he began ordering the manuscript, but death didnt spare him time to complete the fair copy of his manuscript.

His son lāuddīn, later completed the fair copy and appended his own notes spanning two separate volumes, and named it Qurrat al-yūn al-Akhyār, bi Takmalati Radd al-Muĥtār.

A pious life spent in earning the pleasure of his parents, and duteous to Allāh; a life spent in amassing knowledge and good deeds extinguished on Wednesday, the 21st of Rabi ath-Thānī, 1252 AH. He was only 54 when he died.

His funeral prayer was led by his own teacher Saīd al-Ĥalabī who broke down, weeping and clutching his his own beard said: I was treasuring you, for what comes after my old age. Prayers were held in the Sināniyyah mosque and he was buried in accordance with his will near the grave of Shaykh lāuddin al-Ĥaşkafī, the author of Durr al-Mukhtār and next to the great muĥaddith Şāliĥ al-Jaynīnī in Damascus.

May Allāh be pleased with him and grant him the most extensive of paradises.

His works:

1.Ibn ābidīn has left behind numerous books and monographs that are a monument to his research; the most famous and the biggest of them all being his marginalia on Durr al-Mukhtār named: Radd al-Muĥtār la Ad-Durr al-Mukhtār [Answer to the Perplexed: An Exegesis of The Choicest Gems]

This is the most comprehensive and the most authoritative book on Ĥanafī fiqh in the world today. I have also worked in cross-referencing and preparing a detailed index of the book [Shaykh bd al-Jalīl ţā means himself]. It has been published many times: the Būlāq edition of 1272 AH in five volumes and later in 1276 AH and 1299 AH; the Maymaniyyah edition in 1307 AH; the Istanbul edition of 1307 AH. Once again in 1323 AH, there was a Maymaniyyah edition; and later in 1323 AH, the Bābi al-Ĥalabī edition and Istanbul edition in eight volumes along with the Takmalah, which has been photo-offset a number of times hence.

2.Minĥatul Khāliq [Grace of the Creator]: a collection of comments and notes on Nahr al-Fāyiq [The Exuberant Stream] by mar ibn Nujaym and some other works of Khayruddin ar-Ramlī. He doesnt comment except where there is a need to explain or where there is a contentious matter to be clarified; this, he named Minĥatul Khāliq lā al-Baĥr ar-Rāyiq, [Grace of the Creator: an Exegesis of the Lucid Ocean] wherein he completed the exegesis of Ibn Nujayms book left unfinished at ijārah al-fāsidah [illegal hiring]. This was published along the margins of the book: Sharĥ al-Baĥr ar-Rāyiq in seven volumes, and the eighth being its Takmalah [completion] by Ţūri in the year 1311 AH in Egypt.

3.Al-qūd ad-Durriyyah fī Tanqīĥi Al-Fatāwā al-Ĥāmidiyyah [The String of Pearls: A Revision of Ĥamids Fatāwā]: being the revision of the fatāwā of Shaykh Ĥāmiduddin al-mādi; published in two volumes.

4.Ĥāshiyah lā Sharĥ Multaqā al-Abĥur [Marginalia on The Gathering of the Seas of Ĥaşkafī].

5.Ĥāshiyah lā Tafsīr al-Qāđī al-Bayđāwi:[Marginalia on the Exegesis of Bayđawi]: he made it a point to annotate it such that it contains only those points which no other mufassir [exegete] has mentioned before.

6.Ĥāshiyah lā Ifāđātu'l Anwār Sharĥ al-Manār [Marginalia on Extensions of Radiance: an Exegesis of the Lodestar Al-Manār of Ĥaşkafī]: this is not the same as Nasmāt al-Asĥār (see below).

7.Ĥāshiyah lā Sharĥ At-Taqrīr wat Taĥbīr fīl Uşūl of ibn Amīr Ĥājj. [Marginalia on the Exegesis of Speeches and Writing on the matter of Principles of Islamic Knowledge]

8.A marginalia which he named: Raf al-Anār mmā Awradahū al-Ĥalabī lā Ad-Durr al-Mukhtār.

9.A marginalia on Sharĥ al-Manār by al-lāyī named as : Nasmāt al-Asĥār lā Ifāđāt al-Anwār. It has been published twice. [Shining Rays of the Morning, an Explanation of Extensions of Lights]

10.Ĥāshiyah al-Mutawwal [by Taftāzānī].

11.Ĥāshiyah Fatĥi Rabb al-Arbāb lā Lubb al-Albāb Sharĥ Nubdhatil Arāb of Hishām. Manuscript in āhiriyyah library.

12.Ad-Durar al-Muđiyyah fī Sharĥ Nam Al-Abĥur ash-Shariyyah.

13.Fatāwā fīl Fiqhli Ĥanafī, containing about a hundred rulings other than those in his Risālah. It is also known as Ajwibatun Muĥaqqiqah.

14.Sharĥ Al-Kāfī fil rūđ wal Qawāfī [Exegisis of a book on prosody Al-Kāfī by Aĥmed ibn bbād ibn Shuyb al-Qannāa]

15.An appendix to Silk ad-Durar of Al-Murādī.

16.Majmū an-Nafāyis wan Nawādir.

17.Qişşatul Mawlid an-Nabawī ash-Sharīf.

18.Nam al-Kanz; the versification of Al-Kanz of Nasafī. This poem is about eight hundred verses long but he did not complete it.

19.Al-lam a-āhir fī Nafin Nasab at-Ţāhir.

20.Sharĥ Manūmah qūdi Rasmil Muftī [Exegesis of the poem qūdi Rasmil Muftī]: This is an exegesis of his poem, Manūmah qūdi Rasmil Muftī wa mā Yajibu an Yalamahul ālimu wal Muftī in about 74 lines, from the rajz poetic meter; he completed the exegesis in Rabī ath-Thānī 1243 AH.

21.Al-Fawāyid al-Mukhaşşasah bi Aĥkāmi Kayy al-Ĥummaşah: An article on medicine. A brilliant doctor in earlier times had devised a novel way to extract pus from festers and abscesses using chickpea. Ibn ābidīn has combined two separate monographs on this subject along with his own additions. The first being Al-Aĥkām al-Mulakhkhişah fī Ĥukmi Kayy al-Ĥummaşah by Shurnblāli and the second, Al-Abĥāth al-Mulakhkhişah fī Ĥukmi Kayy al-Ĥummaşah by Shaykh bd al-Ghanī an-Nāblūsi. He completed the manuscript in 1227 AH.

22. Manhal al-Wāridīn min Biĥāril Fayđi lā Dhukhril Mutaahhilīn: This is a gloss on the book Dhukhr al-Mutaahhilīn by Al-Birkawī, the author of Ţarīqat al-Muĥammadiyyah. This book deals with the matters relating to menstruation and puerperium. He finished this book on 27th of Dhul Qadah, 1241 AH.

23. Raf at-Taraddud fī qdil Aşābi ndat Tashahhud: A compilation of the sayings of Ĥanafī imāms in the matter of raising the index finger and make a circle with other fingers in tashahhud. Refuting the opinion of some Ĥanafīs who rule that only raising the index finger is necessary without encircling other fingers. It was completed in Rabī al-Awwal, 1249 AH.

24. Tanbīh Dhawil Afhām lā Aĥkāmit Tablīghi Khalf al-Imām: An explanation concerning a follower repeating the imāms takbīrs loudly during şalāt [to amplify the takbirs; a mukabbir]. This topic has been dealt with in a comprehensive manner; it starts with an introduction, has a body and ends with a conclusion. It was completed on the first of Muĥarram 1226 AH.

25. Shifā al-līl wa Ball al-Ghalīl fī Ĥukmil Waşiyyati bil Khitmāti wat Tahālīl: He wrote this to refute a practice prevalent among the people during the plague of 1228 in Damascus. The practice being circulation of a will to complete khitmah [a round of reciting the Qurān completely] and tahlīl [reciting the formula: lā ilāha illā Allāh].

[I suppose this is similar to chain letters being circulated these days about the will of one Shaykh Aĥmed of Madinah. Allāh subĥānahu wa ta`āla knows best.]

26. Minĥatul Jalīl li Bayāni Isqāţi mā lā adh-Dhimmati min Kathīrin wa Qalīl (lāuddīn)

27. Tanbīh al-Ghafīl wal Wasnān lā Aĥkāmi Hilāli Ramađān: He wrote this monograph obeying his shaykh, in which he compiled the canonical ruling concerning the new moon, or the crescent of Ramađan according to all the four madhhabs. Apparently this was to dispel doubts arising of a controversy concerning the new moon of Ramađān in Damascus of the year 1240 AH.

28. Itĥāf adh-Dhakī an-Nabīh fī Jawābi mā Yaqūlu al-Faqīh: He wrote this monograph explaining a question in two couplets as given below. The imām showed eight possible outcomes of the phrase and answered it in verse.

What does the faqih say, may Allāh aid him; never he be bereft of His bounties // In the matter that a youth pronounces divorce on the condition that it is in the month before that month before which is Ramađan [commas are not put in the translation because of the obvious reason - Ibn ābidīn wrote a book on it, after all!]

mā yaqūlu al-faqīhu ayyadahū :: Allāhu wa lā yazāla ndahū iĥsāni //
fī fatan llaqa at-Ţalāqu bi shahrin :: qabla mā bada qablahū ramađāni

29. Al-Ibānah n Akdhil Ujrati lā al-Ĥađānah. [rulings about accepting payment to nurse a child].

30. Taĥrīr an-Nuqūl fī Nafqatil Furūi wal Uşūl: He wrote this article to make it easy for teachers on this complex subject [the principles and derived rulings] and avoid making mistakes in this important matter. He completed this in Shawwāl 1235AH.

31. Raf al-Intiqāş wa Daf al-Itirāđ lā Qawlihim: al-īmānu mabniyyatun lā al-alfā; lā lā al-aghrāđ in which he explains the saying: faith is based on words. He finished it in Rabī ath-Thānī 1238 AH.

32. Raf al-Ishtibāh n bāratil Ashbāh: He clears the doubts regarding a passage whether prophets can sin, mentioned in Al-Ashbāh wan-Naāyir by Ibn Nujaym. He finished it in Ramađān, 1218 AH at the behest of his shaykh Al-qqād.

33. Tanbīh al-Wulāti wal Ĥukkām lā Aĥkāmi Shātimi Khayril Anām aw Aĥada Aşĥābihīl Kirām. This monograph was written as an answer to shaykh bd as-Sattār al-Atāsī, the muftī of Ĥimş, when Ibn ābidīn learnt of the formers opinion on Tanqīĥ al-Fatāwā al-Ĥāmidiyyah, concerning the matter of the blasphemer of the Master of all creation şallAllāhu layhi wa ālihī wa sallam. He added the ruling concerning the vilifiers of the companions [Aşĥāb], thereafter. This was completed in Jamādī al-Ūlā of 1238 AH.

34. Al-Aqwāl al-Wāđiĥah al-Jaliyyah: An explanation of an article mentioned in Al-Ashbāh reported from Al-Subkī regarding the lacuna of division, though he included a large part of this monograph in his marginalia on Al-Ashbāh. Later, he added this it to his book Tanqih al-Fatāwā al-Ĥamidiyyah.

35. Al-qūd ad-Durriyyah fī Qawli al-Wāqifi lā al-Farīđati ash-Shariyyah: An answer to a query concerning the division of waqf and inheritance; it is a summary and the explanation of the monograph Ar-Risālah al-Murđiyyah by Ibn al-Minqār. He finished this around 1230 AH.

36. Ghāyatul Maţlab fī Ishtirāţi al-Wāqifi wd an-Naşībi ilā Ahlid Darajati al-Aqrabu fal Aqrab: contains an answer to a question posted from Tripoli [Lebanon] along with some other fatwās which he completed in 1249.

37. Ghāyatul Bayān fī anna Waqf al-Ithnayni lā Anfusihimā Waqfun lā Waqfān. [two persons bearing grants on themselves is counted as one for each, not two for each] an answer refuting a contrary ruling sent from Tripoli [Lebanon] an year earlier [than the one mentioned above in no.36]. He cleared doubts on the matter and demonstrated the flaws in the ruling, which he finished an year later in 1351 AH.

38. Tanbīh ar-Ruqūd lā Masāyil an-Nuqūd: he collected different opinions on matters related to currency: inflation, devaluation and its discontinuation etc., which was completed around 1230.

39. Taĥbīr at-Taĥrīr fī Ibţāli al-Qađāya bil Faskhi bil Ghabanil Fāĥishi Bilā Taghrīr: answering a question sent in from Sidon [port city of Lebanon; ancient Phoenicia known as Şaydā in Arabic] and refuting the opinions of the mufti of Sidon, after he and his younger brother criticized Ibn ābidīn. He completed this answer in Jamādi al-Akhīrah 1248 AH.

40. Tanbīhi Dhawil Afhām lā Baţlāni'l Ĥukmi bi Naqđi ad-Dawā Bada'l Ibrāyi'l ām: A detailed answer repudiating the veridict of a sitting judge on the matter concerning an incident pertaining to Claims. He finished it in 1251 AH.

41. Ilām al-Alām bi Aĥkāmil Iqrāril ām : This is an exposition of public acknowledgement/confession which is an excursus of Ash-Shurnblālis Taĥqīq al-Aĥkām. He clarified the ambiguities therein and clarified those statements which appeared equivocal. Completed in 1237 AH.

42. Nashr al-rf fī Bināyi Bađ al-Aĥkāmi lā al-rf: An excursus of his own Sharĥ Manūmati qūdi Rasm al-Muftī, commenting on the line:

Prevalent customs are acceptable in the canon law [sharīh when they do not contradict its established articles] /
hence, this shall be considered as a factor in issuing judgements.

wal rfu fī ash-shari lahū itibāru
lidhā layhil ĥukmu qad yudāru

This was completed in Rabī ath-Thāni, 1243 AH.

43. Taĥrīr al-bārah fī man huwa Aĥaqqu bil Ijārah: A commentary on the widespread belief that the first hired (or a tenant) takes precedence over all others in hiring/rental. He added other clauses related to the subject and completed it in Rabī ath-Thāni, 1246 AH.

44. Ajwibatun Muĥaqqiqah n Asilatin Mutafarriqah : A collection of his well researched answers on miscellaneous matters given on different dates.

45. Manāhil as-Surūr li Mubtaghiyal Hisābi bil Kusūr: A versified article on mathematics in 117 lines. As an appendix, he wrote another poem Manūmah fīz Zaĥaf al-Mufrad wal Muzdawij in 18 lines.

46. Ar-Raĥīq al-Makhtūm Sharĥ Qalāyid al-Manūm: An explanation of the versified Qalāyid al- Manūm by the great scholar bd ar-Raĥmān ibn Ibrāhīm famously known as Ibn bd ar-Razzāq on inheritance, drawn from Multaqā al-Abĥur in 392 lines. He completed the manuscript on 1226 AH.

47. Ijābatil Ghawth bi Bayāni Ĥālin Nuqabāyi wan Nujabāyi wal Abdāli wal Awtādi wal Ghawth : A superb monograph exploring the existence of Qutub, Ghawth and Abdāl [ranks of awliya] which ends with an ode named : Qaşīdah al-Bāyiyyah in 26 lines. Completed in Shawwāl of 1124 AH.

48. Sall al-Ĥusām al-Hindī li Nuşrati Mawlāna Khālid an-Naqshbandī: A refutation of a jealous lot who cast aspersions on the great shaykh Mawlāna Khālid an-Naqshbandī. He wrote therein of the [lofty] states of the shaykh, his sayings and his disciples. The article closes with the description of a dream in which sayyidunā thmān [ibn ffān, the third caliph] informed shaykh Khālid that he was one of his descendants; and an elegy to shaykh Khālid raĥimahullāh tāla.

49. Al-Fawāyid al-jībah fīl Irābil Kalimātil Gharībah: On the correct declension of certain words known to be problematic and abstruse among scholars.

50. Bughyatun Nāsik fī Adiyati al-Manāsik: A collection of prayers [dus] for ĥajj, derived from Fatĥ al-Qadīr, Manāsik al-mādī and Lubāb al-Manāsik.

51. Nasmātul Asĥār lā Ifāđat al-Anwār sharĥ Kitāb al-Manār [fi usūl al-fiqh]: A marginalia on the shorter exegesis by Al-Ĥaşkafi on the book Al-Manār of Nasafī [as mentioned in above in no.9]

52. qūd al-Laāli fīl Asānīd al-wāli: A compilation of his authorizations from his teachers and their biographies.

53. Maqāmat: A work eulogizing his shaykh, Al-qqād and his biography.

54. Nuzhatun Nawāir lā Al-Ashbāh wan Naāyir: Marginalia on the book Al-Ashbāh wan Naāyir of Ibn Nujaym which was collected by his student Muĥammad ibn Hasan al-Bayţār, which has been recently published in Damascus.


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