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Tafsir di alcuni versetti:

 
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MessaggioInviato: Dom Nov 02, 2008 6:51 pm    Oggetto: Tafsir di alcuni versetti: Rispondi citando

bismillàh
assalam aleykom
cari fratelli chi avesse qualche spiegazione di questi versetti che Allàh lo ricompensi in misericordia e benedizioni dando il contributo a trarne il giusto significato.
jaysaka lahù hkeyran,

Sura XLIX
Al-Hujurât
(Le Stanze Intime)
Post-Eg. N°106. Di 18 versetti.
Il nome della sura deriva dal versetto 4.

14
I Beduini hanno detto: «Crediamo». Di': « Voi non credete. Dite piuttosto " Ci sottomettiamo", poiché la fede non è ancora penetrata nei vostri cuori. Se obbedirete ad Allah e al Suo Inviato, Egli non trascurerà nessuna delle vostre [buone] azioni. In verità Allah è perdonatore, misericordioso ».

16
Di': « Sareste forse voi ad istruire Allah sulla vostra religione, mentre Allah conosce ciò che è nei cieli e sulla terra?». Allah conosce tutte le cose 17
Vantano questa sottomissione, come fosse un favore da parte loro. Di': « Non rinfacciatemi il vostro Islàm come se fosse un favore. E' piuttosto Allah Che vi ricorda il Suo favore di avervi guidati verso la fede, [che otterre- te] se siete sinceri .
18
Allah conosce l'invisibile dei cieli e della terra e Allah ben osserva quel che fate».

assalam aleykom
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Residenza: Hanafi-Maturidi

MessaggioInviato: Dom Nov 02, 2008 11:05 pm    Oggetto: Re: Tafsir di alcuni versetti: Rispondi citando

Wa `alaykum asSalam wa RahmatuLlahi wa BarakatuHu!

Innanzitutto, si tengano presente i seguenti tre tafasir disponibili on-line:

Tafsir Jalalayn -
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Tafsir Ibn Kathir -

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Tafsir Shafi Usmani -

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Venendo alla tua richiesta sui versettei 14-18 di Surah Al-Hujurât:

1. Dal Tafsir Ibn Kathir

There is a Difference between a Believer and a Muslim

Allah chastises the bedouins who, when they embraced Islam, claimed for themselves the grade of faithful believers. However, Faith had not yet firmly entered their hearts,

[قَالَتِ الاٌّعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَـكِن قُولُواْ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الايمَـنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ]

(The bedouins say: "We believe.'' Say: "You do not believe, but say, `We have submitted,' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts...'') This honorable Ayah provides proof that Faith is a higher grade than Islam, according to the scholars of the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah. This is also demostrated in the Hadith of Jibril, peace be upon him, when he questioned the Prophet about Islam, then Iman then Ihsan. Thus moving the general matter to one more specific, then even more specific. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amir bin Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas said, "The Messenger of Allah gave (something to) some men and did not give one of them. Sa`d said, `O Allah's Messenger, you gave to so-and-so and so-and-so. However, you gave nothing to so-and-so, even though he is a believer.' The Prophet said,

«أَوْ مُسْلِمٌ؟»

(Or say, a Muslim.) Sa`d repeated his statement thrice each time the Prophet answered,

«أَوْ مُسْلِمٌ؟»

(Or say, a Muslim.) The Prophet then said,

«إِنِّي لَأُعْطِي رِجَالًا وَأَدَعُ مَنْ هُوَ أَحَبَّ إِلَيَّ مِنْهُمْ،فَلَمْ أُعْطِهِ شَيْئًا مَخَافَةَ أَنْ يُكَبُّوا فِي النَّارِ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِم»

(I might give some men and give nothing to others, even though the latter are dearer to me than the former. I do not give them things for fear that they might be thrown on their faces in the Fire.)'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Therefore, the Prophet made a distinction between the grade of believer and the grade of Muslim, indicating that Iman is a more exclusive grade than Islam. I mentioned this subject in detail supported by evidence, in the beginning of the explanation of the chapter on Iman in Sahih Al-Bukhari, all praise is due to Allah and all the favors are from Him. So this proves that the bedouins whom the Ayah mentioned were not hypocrites, rather they were Muslims in whose hearts Faith was not yet firmly established. They claimed a higher grade for themselves than the grade that they earned, and they were taught a lesson as a consequence. This meaning agrees with the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Qatadah and that preferred by Ibn Jarir. These bedouins were taught a lesson,

[قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ وَلَـكِن قُولُواْ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الايمَـنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ]

(Say: "You do not believe, but say `We are Muslims,' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts...'') meaning, `you have not yet achieved the reality of Faith.' Allah the Exalted said,

[وَإِن تُطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لاَ يَلِتْكُمْ مِّنْ أَعْمَـلِكُمْ شَيْئاً]

(But if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds...) `He will not decrease any of your rewards,' as Allah said;

[وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ]

(We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) (52:21) Allah said:

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ]

(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) for those who repent and return to Him. Allah's statement,

[إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ]

(Only those are the believers), who have perfect Faith,

[الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَرْتَابُواْ]

(who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not) They do not have doubts and their Faith was not shaken. Rather, their Faith remained on conviction,

[وَجَـهَدُواْ بِأَمْوَلِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ]

(but strive for the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives) meaning, they gladly gave away their life and the most precious of their wealth in obedience to Allah as a means of seeking His pleasure,

[أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الصَّـدِقُونَ]

(Those! They are the truthful. ) `in their statement if they say that they are believers, unlike some bedouins who are faithful only by words outwardly!' Allah said,

[قُلْ أَتُعَلِّمُونَ اللَّهَ بِدِينِكُمْ]

(Say: "Will you inform Allah of your religion...'') `will you inform Allah of what is in your hearts,'

[وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ]

(while Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth,) Nothing in the heavens and earth, even the weight of a speck of dust, all that is bigger or smaller, ever escapes His observation,

[وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ]

(and Allah is All-Aware of everything.) Allah said,

[يَمُنُّونَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ أَسْلَمُواْ قُل لاَّ تَمُنُّواْ عَلَىَّ إِسْلَـمَكُمْ]

(They regard as a favor to you that they have embraced Islam. Say: "Do not count your Islam as a favor to me...'') meaning the bedouins who considered embracing Islam, following and supporting the Messenger as a favor to him. Allah the Exalted refuted their false statement,

[قُل لاَّ تَمُنُّواْ عَلَىَّ إِسْلَـمَكُمْ]

(Say: "Do not count your Islam as a favor to me...'') `for the benefit of your Islam will only be yours, and this is a favor from Allah to you,'

[بَلِ اللَّهُ يَمُنُّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ هَداكُمْ لِلايمَـنِ إِنُ كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ]

(Nay, but Allah has conferred a favor upon you that He has guided you to the Faith if you indeed are true.) `in your claim that you are believers.' The Prophet said to the Ansar on the day of the battle of Hunayn,

«يَا مَعْشَرَ الْأَنْصَارِ أَلَمْ أَجِدْكُمْ ضُلَّالًا فَهَدَاكُمُ اللهُ بِي؟ وَكُنْتُمْ مُتَفَرِّقِينَ فَأَلَّفَكُمُ اللهُ بِي؟ وَكُنْتُمْ عَالَةً فَأَغْنَاكُمُ اللهُ بِي؟»

(O Ansar! Have I not found you astray and Allah guided you through me Were you not divided and Allah united you around me Were you not poor and Allah gave you riches through me) Whenever the Prophet asked them any of these questions, they would reply, "Allah and His Messenger have most favored us.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Banu Asad came to the Messenger of Allah and said, `O Allah's Messenger! We embraced Islam, and before that, the Arabs fought against you, yet we did not fight against you.' The Messenger of Allah said,

«إِنَّ فِقْهَهُمْ قَلِيلٌ وَإِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَنْطِقُ عَلَى أَلْسِنَتِهِم»

(Verily, they understand but little and the Shaytan speaks through their words.) This Ayah was later revealed,

[يَمُنُّونَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ أَسْلَمُواْ قُل لاَّ تَمُنُّواْ عَلَىَّ إِسْلَـمَكُمْ بَلِ اللَّهُ يَمُنُّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ هَداكُمْ لِلايمَـنِ إِنُ كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ ]

(They regard as a favor to you that they have embraced Islam. Say: "Do not count your Islam as a favor to me.'' Nay, but Allah has conferred a favor upon you that He has guided you to the Faith if you indeed are true.'')''' Then Allah reminds that He has complete knowledge of all creations and that He sees them all;

[إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ]

(Verily, Allah knows the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hujurat. Verily, all praise is due to Allah, all the favors are from Him, and from Him comes the success and protection from error.

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2. Dal Tafsir Shafi Usmani (vedi il testo completo dei termini in arabo a partire da pagina 31 del PDF, e 145 della stampa, su

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Verses 14 - 18

The Bedouins say, 'We have come to believe." Say, 'You have not come to believe; instead you (should) say, 'We have surrendered' and the belief has not entered your hearts so far. And if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not curtail (the reward of) any of your deeds in the least. Surely Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful. [14] Believers, in fact, are those who believe in Allah and His Messenger, then have no doubt, and struggle, with their riches and their lives, in the way of Allah. Those are the truthful. [15] Say, "Would you apprise Allah of your religion, while Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and Allah is All-Knowing about every thing?" [16] They oblige you that they have accepted Islam, (as if it was a favour shown to you). Say, "Do not oblige me for your accepting Islam. Rather, Allah makes you obliged for His having guided you to the Faith, if you are truthful. [17] Surely Allah knows the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, and Allah keeps in sight whatever you do. [18]

Sequence of Verses in the Surah

In the preceding verses of the Surah it was stated that the basis of honour in the sight of Allah is righteousness which is an inner quality, and Allah alone knows it. It is improper for any man to claim self-sanctification. In the current set of verses, it is stated, on account of a particular incident, that the real basis of faith is the inner acceptance of the heart. Mere lip-service to faith does not count the person as a faithful believer. In the entire Surah, first the rights of the Prophet (*) were set out and then the rules of how to respect and honour him. Next the individual and collective rights and rules of mannerism were set down to be applied in social life. Now at the conclusion of the Surah it is reiterated that in the Hereafter good deeds will be accepted and rewarded on the basis of faith, sincere belief of the heart and obedience to Allah and His Messenger.

Circumstances of Revelation

According to Imam Baghawi, this verse was revealed in connection with the tribe of Banu Asad. A few members of that tribe came up to the Holy Prophet (*) in Madinah during a severe drought. These people were not sincere believers. They had expressed their Islam merely to demand financial help from the Muslim Sadaqat funds. As they were not believers in the real sense of the word, they were unaware of Islamic injunctions and manners. They spread filth and excrement on the streets of Madinah.
In the marketplaces they increased the prices of necessary items. First they made a false claim of faith in the presence of the Holy Prophet (*); second they wanted to deceive him; and third they regarded their Islam as a favour to him. They said: "We embraced Islam without any conflict: we did not fight against you as did other tribes for a length of time and then they became Muslims; therefore you should value us." This was a sort of disrespect to the Messenger (*), because they considered their Islam as favour to him. Their sole purpose was to derive financial aid from the Muslim Sadaqat funds, enrich themselves and eradicate their poverty.
True and sincere faith is the most precious possession of a Muslim. By accepting Islam, he does no show a favour to anybody; on the contrary, it is a favour of Allah that he is guided to the Truth. On this occasion, the current set of verses was revealed in which their false claim is refuted and they have been taken to task for boasting of their so-called kindness and favour conferred upon the Holy Prophet (*).

- ('...Say, 'We have surrendered" - 49:14). They had not achieved the reality of faith. Thus they were claiming falsely to be Muslims on the basis of their outward actions. The Qur'an first negates their false claim of faith: You cannot claim "Amanna" ['We have come to believe']; the most you can say is "Aslamna" ['We have surrendered'], because the literal meaning of Islam is to recite the kalimah of Islam, enter the fold of the religion and surrender. Obviously, being devoid of the true spirit, this kind of Islam is mere superficial, not real and total. As far as faith is concerned, it is related to the real belief by heart. Therefore, mere verbal claim or lip-profession is meaningless, if it is not supported by the heart.

Lexical and Technical Analysis of the Concepts "Islam" and "'Iman"

The foregoing discussion clarifies that the term "Islam" in this verse bears the literal meaning of outward submission and not the technical sense. Therefore, the verse does not show the technical difference between the terms "Islam" and "'Iman". The two terms, technically, connote different senses. "'Iman", in the technical sense of Shari'ah, refers to the belief by heart and thus connotes a firm and unshakable belief in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger (*). "Islam", on the other hand, stands for complete surrender and obedience to Allah and His Messenger (*).
However, "Islam" and "'Iman" of a person need to complement each other.
In Shari'ah, the belief of the heart must manifest itself by performing deeds outwardly, the least degree of which is to proclaim the kalimah of Islam verbally. But the outward performance of deeds is not recognised by Shari'ah unless the faith goes deep down into his heart. Otherwise it would be hypocrisy. Thus in the original and final analysis "Islam" and "'Iman" are different concepts. "'Iman" is the inner quality of the heart and manifests outwardly whilst "Islam" starts out in outward actions and culminates in the inner sincere affirmation of the heart. But in terms of their goal, they are mutually necessary and complementary in that "'Iman" without "Islam" is not possible, nor is "Islam possible without "'Iman". Hence, it is not true to say that "Muslim" and "Mu'min" are antonyms and mutually contradictory concepts. In Shari'ah, it is not possible for a person to be a "Muslim" but not a "Mu'min" or be a "Mu'min" but not a "Muslim". However, this is possible only lexically, as is the case of all hypocrites who used to be treated like Muslims, because of their outward obedience of Islamic injunctions, but their hearts were devoid of sincere faith, belief and affirmation. They were not believers.
Allah, the Pure and Exalted, knows best.

Alhamdulillah
The Commentary on
Surah Al-Hujurat
Ends here


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