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gli italiani d'oggi possono considerarsi min ahl-kitab ?????

 
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mohamedbg
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Registrato: 30/08/11 13:42
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MessaggioInviato: Mar Ago 30, 2011 1:59 pm    Oggetto: gli italiani d'oggi possono considerarsi min ahl-kitab ????? Rispondi citando

assalamu 3alaikum wa ra7matullah sono un nuovo membro vi ringrazio anticipatamente per l'ottimo lavoro che state conducendo allah i j3alha fi mizan al7asanat. tuttavia mi esprimo chiedendovi se gli italiani d'oggi possiamo definirli gente del libro...oppure chi possiamo definire gente del libro nella nostra societa'??? jazakumu allahu khayran
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Sufi Aqa
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Residenza: Madhhab: Hanafi-Deobandi

MessaggioInviato: Mar Ago 30, 2011 11:53 pm    Oggetto: Re: gli italiani d'oggi possono considerarsi min ahl-kitab ? Rispondi citando

Wa `alaykum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu fratello Muhammad.

Amin al tuo du`a'.

mohamedbg ha scritto:
tuttavia mi esprimo chiedendovi se gli italiani d'oggi possiamo definirli gente del libro...oppure chi possiamo definire gente del libro nella nostra societa'??? jazakumu allahu khayran


"Gli italiani" è una categoria fin troppo vasta, che include persone di tutti i tipi: ci sono Italiani Musulmani (come molti in questo forum), cristiani, ebrei, atei, agnostici, comunisti, buddhisti, sikh, pagani, e molto altro ancora.

Ahl al-Kitab saranno dunque gli italiani che sono cristiani ed ebrei, non gli altri.

Anche qui, bisogna vedere quale sia la definizione di "cristiani ed ebrei" che rientrino nella categoria di "Ahl al-Kitab", visto che tra loro ci sono diversi gruppi, anche molto diversi tra loro.

Mi risulta che ci siano differenti definizoni di "Ahl al-Kitab" a seconda delle scuole giuridiche islamiche (madhahib).

Hadrat Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Uthmani, uno dei maggiori sapienti della nostra epoca, di scuola Hanafita, discutendo riguardo chi vada considerato "Ahl al-Kitab" nel contesto della macellazione delle carni, scrive in "The Islamic Laws of Animal Slaughter - Ahkam al-Dhaba'ih" (spero tu capisca l'inglese, altrimenti tradurrà più tardi insha'Allah):

"(...) It is not required that a Kitabi believe in the pure oneness of Allah (Tawhid) as Muslims do, nor that he believe that the present Torah and Gospel are corrupted or that the laws of Moses (alayhi assalam) and Jesus (alayhi assalam) have been abrogated in favor of the law of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). It is sufficient that he believe in the basic doctrines that the Jews and Christians believe in - those that distinguish them from people of other creeds.
At the same time, however, to regard a person from the People of the Book, it is not enough that he have a Christian or Jewish name or that he be counted as Christian or Jew in the official statistical records. His beliefs must truly be Christian or Jewish beliefs. In this day and age, especially in the Western nations, there is an innumerable number of people whose names are like those of Christians and Jews, and who may be recorded statistically as Christians and Jews, but are in fact atheists or materialists who do not even believe in the existence of a creator of the universe, let alone the other Judeo-Christian doctrines. In fact, many of the mock religion. Such people are not Christians or Jews, so it is not permissible to consider them from the People of the Book. (...)".
[Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani - The Islamic Laws of Animal Slaughter - Ahkam al-Dhaba'ih, p. 64, White Thread Press]

Invece, a quanto ho letto, per la scuola Shafi`i la questione è più complicata, e viene considerato Kitabi chi - cristiano od ebreo - discenda da chi abbia accettato l'"ebraismo" od il "cristianesimo" quando la loro religione non era ancora stata abrogata o corrotta:

" (...) the Shafi'i teaching. It doesn't have anything to do with ethnicity. It works like this:

The Jews, at one time, were Muslims. They recognized, believed in, and followed the most recent Messenger that was sent to them. They adhered to their religion and practiced its tenets. They submitted to the command of Allah. The same is also true of the early Christians.

But at some point each of these religions was abrogated because a new Shariah had been revealed to a new Messenger. For the Jews, their religion was abrogated when Isa (alayhissalaam) received the Injeel. For the Christians, their religion was abrogated when Muhammad received the first revelation of Qur'an. So abrogation is an important moment in the history of these religions.

Another important moment in the history of these religions is the time of their corruption. Both the Jewish scriptures and the Christian scriptures have been corrupted and are no longer 100% in agreement with the original teachings of the Prophets that are associated with those scriptures.

Keep these two points of history in mind, and understand this rule: Anyone who embraced Judaism or Christianity after that religion was abrogated OR after it was corrupted is NOT among the People of the Book. This is because they NEVER accepted the true teaching of their Prophet.

Between Judaism and Christianity, it was Christianity that was first corrupted. During the life of Rasoolullah there were still true copies of the Torah in existence (granted the Jews had corrupted the explanations of the Torah, but the text itself was still correct), whereas the Christian books had already been corrupted before Rasoolullah was born.


So, now that you have the background, let's get back to the rule of the Shafi'i school....
1- If a person embraced Judaism prior to Isa's coming (which was also prior to the corruption of their books), then that person is a person of the book AND so are his descendants - as long as none of his descendants have left that religion. If a descendant leaves Judaism, then that particular line of descent loses the label of Ahl ul-kitab from that point forward.

2- If a person embraced Judaism after Isa's coming, but before the Jewish books were corrupted, then that person is NOT among ahl ul-kitab, and neither are his descendants. We may not eat his meat nor marry his daughters.

3- If a person embraced Judaism after their books were corrupted (which happend during the time of our nation) then that person is NOT among ahl ul-kitab, and neither are his descendants.

4- If a person embraced Christianity prior to the corruption of their books, then they are among the ahl ul-kitab, and so are their descendants as long as none of their descendants leave Christianity (see #1).

5- If a person embraced Christianity after their books were corrupted, but before Rasoolullah received His first revelation of Qur'an, then that person is NOT among ahl ul-kitab, and neither are his descendants.

6- If a person embraced Christianity after Rasoolullah's first revelation , then that person is NOT among ahl ul-kitab, and neither are his descendants.


By now it should be clear how the rule works. It doesn't go by ethnicity, but it goes by whether you are descended from a Muslim of one of the earlier nations. There is no significance to being descended from a kaafir who claimed to follow Isa or Musa (alayhimassalaam).

You should also be aware that the Jews were scattered and living in many places during the time before Isa came. And Christianity had also spread quite far in its early years. At the very least, Jews and Christians could both be found throughout the entire Roman Empire and into the Persian Empire... possibly as far as India. Christianity became very strong in Ethiopia very early, and it is possible that they accepted Christianity BEFORE their books were corrupted.

Basically, there are MANY different ethnicities that could have families that are people of the book.

But there are also many ethnicities that we know for sure are NOT people of the Book (ie. the British, the scandanavians, Germans, Chinese, all the native peoples of the New World - including the vast majority [possibly all] of the African slaves)
".
[Yahya -

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Non so quali siano i criteri adottati dalle scuole Maliki ed Hanbali.

Wassalam.

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